Mitochondria Function

dr-warburgeBoB the Patient say’s and I agree ” Everything starts in your Mitochondria, good or bad.

Look after your Mitochondria and they will look after you, after all they are you and are responsible for every cell in our body.

If they die, we die, end of, when they become faulty we call the results Cancer.

Dr Warburg told us this in 1931, so what have they done with the billions spent on cancer research since then!, jobs for the girls and boys me thinks.”

The mitochondrion is an extremely interesting and important organelle in eukaryotic cells. It is the only organelle (other than the nucleus, of course) that has its own DNA independent of the cell’s chromosomal DNA; because of this and the fact that the organelle divides independent of the cell, the mitochondria is thought to have once been a bacterial cell that colonized a eukaryotic cell.

Among other things, it performs cellular respiration, has an electron transport system that occurs across membranes, and produces ATP.

Mitochondria have their own (usually) circular DNA chromosome that is stabilized by attachments to the inner membrane and carries genes similar to genes expressed by alphaproteobacteria.

Mitochondria also have special ribosomes and transfer RNAs that resemble these components in prokaryotes.

These features all support the hypothesis that mitochondria were once free-living prokaryotes.

Mitochondria Function

Mitochondria are often called the “powerhouses” or “energy factories” of a cell because they are responsible for making Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy-carrying molecule. ATP represents the short-term stored energy of the cell.

Cellular respiration is the process of making ATP using the chemical energy found in glucose and other nutrients.

In mitochondria, this process uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. In fact, the carbon dioxide that you exhale with every breath comes from the cellular reactions that produce carbon dioxide as a by-product.

It is important to point out that muscle cells have a very high concentration of mitochondria that produce ATP.oxygen-and-mitocodria

Your muscle cells need a lot of energy to keep your body moving. When your cells don’t get enough oxygen, they do not make a lot of ATP.

Instead, the small amount of ATP they make in the absence of oxygen is accompanied by the production of lactic acid.

In addition to the aerobic generation of ATP, mitochondria have several other metabolic functions.

One of these functions is to generate clusters of iron and sulfur that are important cofactors of many enzymes.

Such functions are often associated with the reduced mitochondrion-derived organelles of anaerobic eukaryotes.

Origins of Mitochondria

There are two hypotheses about the origin of mitochondria: endosymbiotic and autogenous, but the most accredited theory at present is endosymbiosis.

The endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests mitochondria were originally prokaryotic cells, capable of implementing oxidative mechanisms.

These prokaryotic cells may have been engulfed by a eukaryote and became endosymbionts living inside the eukaryote.

 

Look After Your Mitochondria, they Look After You 

 

Source: Boundless. “Mitochondria.” Boundless Biology. Boundless, 08 Jan. 2016. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2016 

 

Useful to Medics and Cancer Research – The Technical Stuff and Facts about Mitochondria – it tells you everything you need to know about Mitochondria

 

 

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